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Книга An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method
 
Cohen, Morris R. (1880-1947); Nagel, Ernest (1901-1985)
An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method

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Аннотация
An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method is a college level primer on logic. This book was widely used by scholars especially those studying economics as an introduction to logical thought in preparation for intellectual discourse. Ludwig von Mises was known to say that all students of economics should read this book as a first step in their training as economists.
Оглавление
Preface

I. THE SUBJECT MATTER OF LOGIC
    1. Logic and the Weight of Evidence
    2. Conclusive Evidence or Proof
    3. The Nature of Logical Implication
    4. Partial Evidence or Probable Inference
    5. Is Logic about Words, Thoughts, or Objects?
    6. The Use and Application of Logic

BOOK I: FORMAL LOGIC

II. THE ANALYSIS OF PROPOSITIONS
    1. What Is a Proposition?
    2. The Traditional Analysis of Propositions
    3. Compound, Simple, and General Propositions

III. THE RELATIONS BETWEEN PROPOSITIONS
    1. The Possible Logical Relations between Propositions
    2. Independent Propositions
    3. Equivalent Propositions
    4. The Traditional Square of Opposition
    5. The Opposition of Propositions in General

IV. THE CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM
    1. The Definition of Categorical Syllogisms
    2. The Enthymeme
    3. The Rules or Axioms of Validity
    4. The General Theorems of the Syllogism
    5. The Figures and Moods of the Syllogism
    6. The Special Theorems and Valid Moods of the First Figure
    7. The Special Theorems and Valid Moods of the Second Figure
    8. The Special Theorems and Valid Moods of the Third Figure
    9. The Special Theorems and Valid Moods of the Fourth Figure
    10. The Reduction of Syllogisms
    11. The Antilogism or Inconsistent Triad
    12. The Sorites

V. HYPOTHETICAL. ALTERNATIVE, AND DISJUNCTIVE SYLLOGISMS
    1. The Hypothetical Syllogism
    2. The Alternative Syllogism
    3. The Disjunctive Syllogism
    4. The Reduction of Mixed Syllogisms
    5. Pure Hypothetical and Alternative Syllogisms
    6. The Dilemma

VI. GENERALIZED OR MATHEMATICAL LOGIC
    1. Logic as the Science of Types of Order
    2. The Formal Properties of Relations
    3. The Logical Properties of Relations in Some Familiar Inferences
    4. Symbols: Their Function and Value
    5. The Calculus of Classes
    6. The Calculus of Propositions

VII. THE NATURE OF A LOGICAL OR MATHEMATICAL SYSTEM
    1. The Function of Axioms
    2. Pure Mathematics-an Illustration
    3. Structural Identity or Isomorphism
    4. The Equivalence of Axiom Sets
    5. The Independence and Consistency of Axioms
    6. Mathematical Induction
    7. What Generalization Means in Mathematics

VIII. PROBABLE INFERENCE
    1. The Nature of Probable Inference
    2. The Mathematics or Calculus of Probability
    3. Interpretations of Probability

IX. SOME PROBLEMS OF LOGIC
    1. The Paradox of Inference
    2. Is the Syllogism a Petitio Principii?
    3. The Laws of Thought
    4. The Basis of Logical Principles in the Nature of Things

BOOK II: APPLIED LOGIC AND SCIENTIFIC METHOD

X. LOGIC AND THE METHOD OF SCIENCE

XI. HYPOTHESES AND SCIENTIFIC METHOD
    1. The Occasion and the Function of Inquiry
    2. The Formulation of Relevant Hypotheses
    3. The Deductive Development of Hypotheses
    4. The Formal Conditions for Hypotheses
    5. Facts, Hypotheses, and Crucial Experiments
    6. The Role of Analogy in the Formation of Hypotheses

XII. CLASSIFICATION AND DEFINITION
    1. The Significance of Classification
    2. The Purpose and the Nature of Definition
    3. The Predicates
    4. Rules for Definition
    5. Division and Classification

XIII. THE METHODS OF EXPERIMENTAL INQUIRY
    1. Types of Invariant Relations
    2. The Experimental Methods in General
    3. The Method of Agreement
    4. The Method of Difference
    5. The Joint Method of Agreement and Difference
    6. The Method of Concomitant Variation
    7. The Method of Residues
    8. Summary Statement of the Value of the Experimental Methods
    9. The Doctrine of the Uniformity of Nature 10. The Plurality of Causes

XIV. PROBABILITY AND INDUCTION
    1. What Is Inductive Reasoning?
    2. The Role of Fair Samples in Induction
    3. The Mechanism of Sampling
    4. Reasoning from Analogy

XV. MEASUREMENT
    1. The Purpose of Measurement
    2. The Nature of Counting
    3. The Measurement of Intensive Qualities
    4. The Measurement of Extensive Qualities
    5. The Formal Conditions for Measurement
    6. Numerical Laws and Derived Measurement

XVI. STATISTICAL METHODS
    1. The Need for Statistical Methods
    2. Statistical Averages
    3. Measures of Dispersion
    4. Measures of Correlation
    5. Dangers and Fallacies in the Use of Statistics

XVII. PROBABLE INFERENCE IN HISTORY AND ALLIED INQUIRIES
    1. Does History Employ Scientific Method?
    2. The Authenticity of Historical Data
    3. Establishing the Meaning of Historical Data
    4. Determining the Evidential Value of Historical Testimony
    5. Systematic Theories in History
    6. The Comparative Method
    7. The Weighing of Evidence in Court

XVIII. LOGIC AND CRITICAL EVALUATION
    1. Are Evaluations Beyond Logic?
    2. Moral Judgments in History
    3. The Logic of Critical Judgments on Art
    4. The Logic of Moral and Practical Judgments
    5. The Logic of Fictions

XIX. FALLACIES
    1. Logical Fallacies
    2. Sophistical Refutations
    3. The Abuse of Scientific Method

XX. CONCLUSION
    1. What Is Scientific Method?
    2. The Limits and the Value of Scientific Method

Appendix-Examples of Demonstration
    1. What Does a Demonstration Establish?
    2. Some Fallacious Demonstrations

Exercises

Index
Авторы
Cohen, Morris R. (1880-1947)
Nagel, Ernest (1901-1985)