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Книга Protectionism: The -ism which Teaches that Waste Makes Wealth
Sumner, William Graham (1840-1910)
Protectionism: The -ism which Teaches that Waste Makes Wealth

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Sumner. Protectionism; 203,57 Кбайт

Chapter I.-Definitions.-Statement of the Question oi be Investigated
    (a.) The system of which protectionism is a survival
    (b.) Old and new conceptions of the state
    (c.) Definition of protectionism and of theory
    (d.) Definition of free trade and of a protective duty
    (e.) Protectionism raises a purely domestic controversy
    (f.) "A tariff is not a tax"
Chapter II.-Protectionism Examined on its Own Grounds
    (a.) Assumptions of protectionism
    (b.) Necessary conditions of successful protective legislation
    (c.) Examination of the means proposed, i. e., taxes
    (d.) The plan of mutual taxation
    (e ) The proposal to create an industry
    (f.) The proposal to develop natural resources
    (g.) The proposal to raise wages
    (h.) The prevention of competition by foreign pauper labor
    (i.) The proposal to raise the standard of comfort
Chapter III.-Protectionism Eexamined Adversely
I. Protectionism is hostile to trade
    (a.) Rules for safe trade
    (b.) Economic units not national units
II. Protectionism at war with improvement
    (a.) Taxes to offset cheapened transportation
    (b.) Sugar bounties
    (c.) Forced foreign relations to regulate improvements which can no longer be defeated
III. Protection lowers wage
    (a.) No true wages-class in the United States
    (b.) How taxes do act on wages
    (c.) Perils of statistics, especially of wages
IV. Protectionism is socialism
Chapter IV.-Sundry Fallacies of Protectionism
    (a.) Infant industries
    (b.) Protection lowers prices
    (c.) Danger of becoming purely agricultural
    (d.) Connection of manufactures and prosperity
    (e.) Diversification of industry
    (f.) Manufactures give value to land
    (g.) The truck-farm argument
    (h.) Farmers are saved from competition
    (i.) Without protection-no industries
    (j.) Protection offers variety of employment
    (k.) Independence
    (l.) Salvation from foreign monopoly
    (m.) Free trade good in theory but not in practice
    (n.) Trade is war
    (o.) Employment for idle labor and capital
    (p.) Young nations need protection
    (q.) The war argument
    (r.) Great moral development of the nation by protection
    (s.) Losing as consumers and winning as producers
    (t.) That the foreign producer pays for protection
Chapter V.-Summary and conclusion
Sumner, William Graham (1840-1910)